Museum of the Origins of Man



TWO-HEADED PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURES OF HUMAN HEADS JOINED TO ANIMAL HEADS BY THE NAPE


The working of human head joined to animal head by the nape is subdivided in 4 phases:
- from 750,000 to 400,000 years (Acheulean and ancient Clactonian),
- from 400,000 to 200,000 years (Acheulean and middle Clactonian),
- from 200,000 to 40,000 years (Acheuleana and recent Clactonian, and Mousterian),
- from 40,000 to 12,000 years (upper Paleolithic),
The typology of the sculptures consists of two-headed zooanthropomorphic, that is a human head joined by the nape to a head of animal (Fig. 9.5). The heads are without neck.
In the upper Paleolithic there are no paintings with depictions of this type.
In every phase of the Paleolithic, the human heads depict the head of the hominids who have made them, although in some periods we can consider it as a stylistic deformation of the representation, due to the fashion of the time.
In the lower Paleolithic the head of the animal is that of a herbivorous mammalian .
Beginning with the Mousterian, even begin the heads of feline, and in the upper Paleolithic also those of birds.



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Fig. 9,1) Zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture depicting an animal head and a human head, joined by the nape. The head on the left looks like a lion; the head on the right looks a Homo erectus or a Preneanderthalian. Under the two jaws the silex goes down pointly. Holding the sculpture at the two extremities with two fingers, we can rotate it, and is best seen every expression.
The sculpture is worked on the whole surface.
Size: cm. 7 high, cm. 4 thick.
From Pescara, Italy.
Material culture: Clactonian or Acheulean, ancient or middle.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


Fig. 9.2) Zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture. The drawing of the lithic sculpture was published by W.M NEWTON in 1913. Newton attributed this sculpture to a mammal head. In my opinion, this drawing is not sufficient to express an opinion. However, with the typology that we have,, we interpret on the left a head of mammal, and on the right a head of hominid.
Size: cm. 13 lenght .
Perhaps southern England or northern France..
Material culture: probably Clactonian or middle Acheulean.


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Fig. 9.3) Zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It depicts an animal head (on the left), and a head of hominid (on the right). The stylistic deformation has been defined "elongated horizontal style" .In the depiction, this style is associated with the abolition of every detail of the hominid face and of the animal muzzle. This is the conclusion we came to studying the variations in anthropomorphic and zooanthropomorphic sculptures of lengthened horizontal type, of which this sculpture has the highest stylistic deformation. It is an extremely elegant style.
The sculpture is made of green stone, and has a mild rafting from rolling, which is not disfiguring.
Size: cm. 10.
From old alluviums of theTorrent Scrivia, Tortona, Alessandia, Italy.
Material culture: Clactonian or middle or recent Acheulean.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


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Fig. 9.4) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It represents a head of hominid (side A) joined by the nape to a mammal head (side B).The style is an elongated horizontal type. Despite the stylistic deformation, the head of the hominid can be interpreted like Homo erectus or Preneanderthalian.
Size: cm.12,1 lenght ; cm. 6.2 eight ; cm. 4,8 widht . Weight 0.460 Kg
FromTorre in Pietra, Roma, Italy.
Material culture : Acheulean or middle or recent Clactonian.
See: "A two-headed zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture of the evolued Acheulean from Roma-Torre in Pietra interpreted through the typology of the sculptures" , by P.Gaietto , in Paleolithic Art Magazine, 2001, which also contains an analysis of this sculpture in 22 points, with six photographs of the sculpture from every side.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


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Fig. 9,5) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It represents a head of hominid (Side A) joined by the nape to a mammal head (Side B).
Size: cm. 9,2 widht ; cm. 5,8 height; cm. 5,5 thick. Kg 0,300 weight .
From Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


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Fig. 9,6) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It represents a human head (left side) joined by the nape to one mammal head (right side). The human head can be attributed to Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, through the typology of the lateral profile of the head, generally as it is represented in sculpture.
The head of the animal has been attributed to the moufflon, or in any case to an ovine or bovine with coming down horns. This consideration is based on the representation of the horns between the two heads; in fact the two heads are worked from every part. This part of the nodule of silex in relief has been left, to represent the horns exactly. This is an unique type. In the paleolithic typology, rarity is not a quality for the research, but a defect. Animal is looking up; however we cannot exclude that it is an artistic hybrid man-animal . It is a work that must be studied ulteriorly.
Size: cm. 7
From Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


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Fig. 9,7) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It depicts a human head (left side) joined by the nape to a bird head (right side).The size of the head of the bird is larger than the actual, since it is equal to that of men, who, also, is represented in smaller dimensions to of reality. The style abolishes the details of the human face, but is realistic in the representation of the bird's head .The man looks like a Sapiens sapiens, while the bird seems a real sea-gull; an eye is engraved as a diamond, not visible in photography, therefore it has been outlined. The human head in the opposite side is flat, while the head of the bird is carved frontally, and from every side, also under the beak.
Size: cm. 30 lenght,
From Vesima, Genoa, Italy. (Vesima is a mountain area on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea).
Material culture: the upper Paleolithic.


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Fig. 9,7 bis) Anthropozoomorphic two-faced Paleolithic sculpture. It depicts a human head joined for the nape to the head of a bird. The human head (left) has an artistic style of geometric type, while the head of bird (right) with big beak is of type realistic. Different styles with different subjects can coexist in a same sculpture. This lithic sculpture has a harmonious composition. It comes from a alluvial deposit at Karaman (Turkey), so it is of difficult datation, but it could be between 60,000 and 30,000 years. Collection Pietro Gaietto. In the evolutionistic investigation of the religions, this type of representation fully put down this sculpture within the tradition of the Western civilization with lithic sculpture of Neanderthal man native to Europe and Middle East.

Size: lenght 17.5 cm


NOTICE

In this Museum of the Origins of Man all Paleolithic and post-Paleolithic published works (sculptures, paintings, graffiti, engravings, etc..) fall into the Spiritual Culture of the different peoples.

The indication of the Material Culture in the caption of each work concerns the general cultural attribution (Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic) which also includes the approximate date when we do not have absolute dating.




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Fig. 9,8) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It represents a head of mammal (on the left) joined by the nape to a human head (on the right). The human type has forehead and chin, therefore can be attributed to Homo sapiens sapiens. The style tends to the horizontal elongation. The sculpture is well modeled, while the eye is made ??from a deep recording that divides the two heads. Soapstone. The photo below is a side view, while the photo above corresponds to the top view. Size: cm. 4. From Cave of the Children, Balzi Rossi, Grimaldi, Imperia, Italy. Material culture: the Upper Paleolithic. Prehistoric Anthropology Museum (Musee d'Anthropologie Prehistorique), Principality of Monaco



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Fig. 9.9) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It represents half human head (on the left) joined to half head of feline (on the right), with frontal gaze. It was discovered in a cave that was closed for millennia. It was facing an altar with sacrifical offerings . This altar is made from a squared monolith of almost 1,000 kg weight, purposely carried into the cave. This cave is the oldest "temple" that we know with an "idol", which is this sculpture. This monolith and the sculpture testify the affinity among the manufacturers of two-headed sculptures and and the builders of anthropomorpic menhirs. The sculpture has been discovered by Prof. Leslie Freeman of the University of Chicago, and by other Spanish archeologists.
Size: cm. 30 height .
From the Cave of El Juyo, Santander, Spain.
Absolute dating: 14,000 years.
National Museum and Research Centre of Altamira, Spain.


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Fig. 9.10) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It depicts a human head with body (on the left) superimposed on the head of a mammal (on the left, frontal view). The head of the mammal is worked in both parts; in the back view there is a deep incision that divides the two images.
A similar human figure has been found at Roussillon (Fig. 5,42).
Size: cm. 5 height .
From Palo, S.Pietro d'Olba, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: the upper Paleolithic.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


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Fig. 9,11) Two-headed zooanthropomorphic sculpture. It depicts a human head (on the left) joined by the nape to an animal head (on the right). The style is extremely realistic, and represents a suffering expression. Eyes and nose are in relief, and also the features of the cheek, which looks like a grimace (front view A) are well represented.
Size: cm. 7 height .
From Vado Ligure, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: the upper Paleolithic.
The Museum of the Origins of Man Collection.


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