Museum of the Origins of Man



HUMAN HEADS WITH ANIMAL HEADS IN PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURE


Making human head mixed with animal head is subdivided in 5 phases: - from 2,500,000 to 750,000 years (Olduvaian),
- from 750,000 to 400,000 years (Acheulean and ancient Clactonian),
- from 400,000 to 200,000 years (Acheulean and middle Clactonian),
- from 200,000 to 40,000 years (Acheulean and recent Clactonian, and Mousteriam),
- from 40,000 to 12,000 years (upper Paleolithic),
The typology of sculptures is constituted from representations of hybrids man-animal (Fig. 6,1). We deal here not about bifrontism, that is a human head joined to a head of animal, neither of two half faces of man and animal in a single head.Here we deal with a mixture of parts of human face and of snout of an animal in a single head (Fig. 6.3). These artistic-religious hybrids continue in sculpture in the post-paleolithic ages and in the ethnography (Fig. 6A10 ).




Fig. 6,1) Zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture (Drawing). Found by MARY LEAKEY. It represents the head of an artistic hybrid man-animal, but it could be a head of hominid realized with a style, that is with a language of the art, that we still do not are able to define, for scarcity of findings. It is the more ancient sculpture known.
Size: they are on the drawing, unknown thickness.
Origin: Olduvai Gorge (East Africa).
Material culture: Olduvaian.
Absolute dating: 1.700.000 years.
Finding studied by Mary Leakey, Raymond Dart, K.P.Oakley


Fig. 6.2) Lithic zooanthropomorphic sculpture found by Isaie Dharvent in 1902 or previously. It is an old photography, in which it is not possible to see the parts worked on the nodule of silex. Perhaps it is damaged from alluvial tumbling. The representation, in the interpretation of Dharvent, was the head of a monkey. Our interpretation is different: the profile of the head has jaw and human forehead, while the mouth and the upper part of the face are of animal, therefore is an artistic hybrid man-animal.
Size: perhaps cm. 6 of height.
Origin: probably Center-North of France.
Material culture: probably Clactonian or middle Acheulean.
In this photography the working traces are not looked at.We do not look at the back.Moreover the mouth is atypical, perhaps influenced from the shape of the nodule of silex, therefore it is not possible to establish with certainty the authenticity.


Fig. 6.3) Zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture found by WALTER MATTHES before 1969. It represents, according to Matthes, " a grotesque head ", and it is right. But we are more precise: according to our typology it is an artistic hybrid of feracious man-animal. Jaw is human.The proportion of the height of the head is human; the snout is animal; the mouth is opened wide.
The sculpture is worked from every part. Mouth has been obtained from a recess of the nodule of silex. The clear patches are a residual of the rind that covered the nodule of silex.
Material culture: Clactonian or recent Acheulean.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 6.4) Zooanthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents an artistic hybrid man-animal , with look up; a long neck, and pointed nape.
Size: height cm. 14, thickness cm.2.
Origin: Varazze, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Clactonian or recent Acheulean.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


Fig. 6.6) Zooanthropomorphic sculpture in bone (Drawing). It represents an artistic hybrid man-animal. Head and body are enough similar to the man (at least for the vertical body), while ears are of an animal. It is the only finding of the Paleolithic, know by us, representing ears in a stone and bone sculptures. The representation of the ears is known only in small zoomorphic sculptures in cooked clay of the upper Paleolithic, found at Dolni Vestonice in Moravia, and Voglherd in Germany.
Size: small dimensions.
Origin: France.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.



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