Museum of the Origins of Man
TWO-FACED HUMAN HEAD IN POST-PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURE
Fig. 5A1) Anthropomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents a
two-faced divinity like Giano, El-Kronos, Argon, Borea, and so on. The
hat is much beautiful, like in all the sculptures of evolued
5A2) Anthropomorphic lithic sculptures.
Small idols in alabaster or stone. By scholars of ancient
religions, they are put in relation with the celestial or solar
character of the divinity adored in the temple, and could have
votive meaning. These small idols many-eyes enclose traditions of several
divinities. The many eyes, like the many arms, in a same sculpture,
re-enter in " bifrontism (two-faced) ". The types that have beeen found
are four: male; female; couple, male and female with a
single mouth, and the little idol with three eyes. Interesting the
hats, similar to the first hats known in sculpture in the
Size: cm. 5 on average.
Origin: temple di Brak, Tell Brak, Valley of Khabur, northern Syria.
Dating: IV millenium B.C.
5A3) Lithic sculpture in bas-relief. It represents a man with two-faced
head, sitting between two rearing horses. It is called " dominating God
of the animals ". Two animals at the sides of the God, are a new
recurrent topic in the iconography of the first urban civilizations.
Size: height cm. 30, widht cm. 38, thickness max cm. 17.
Origin: Villaricos, Spain.
Archaeological museum of Barcelona, Spain.
5A4) Two-faced Anthropomorphic sculpture in marble. It represents the
bust of a man with three bearded heads. It represents the Gaulish God
with three heads. We can attribute style, and making, to the
classic Greece. Its name is unknown, as there are not been
Size: height cm. 45 approximately.
Origin: Condat, Dordogne, France.
Fig. 5A5) Anthropomorphic lithic sculpture (Drawing).It represents the head of a bearded man, with three faces and two eyes.
It represents the Gaulish God with three faces.
Size: perhaps cm. 50 approximately.
Origin: Reims, France.
5A6) Anthropomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture. It represents two
human heads beardless, and lacking in hairs, joined with look in
opposite direction; between the two heads, a small head lacking in
the particulars of the face.
It represents a celtic-Gaulish God, in origin three-headed;
then, for cult reasons (as supported by scholars of this religion),
one of the three head has been abolished, but we see trace of
it in reduced in size representation.
Size: height cm. 30 approximately.
Origin: Roquepertuse, Mouths of the Rhone, France.
Museum Lapidaire of Marseilles, France.
5A7) Lithic sculpture in bas-relief. It represents a riding man with
three bearded heads; on the background several human figures. It
represents the rider God with three heads. In Ancient Thrace, the God
had also two heads. It is a solar God. In Bulgaria have
been found hundreds of these steles.
Size: modest dimensions.
Origin: Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
5A8) Lithic sculpture in bas-relief. It represents a man with head with
three faces, large lips, and a woman and a man. It represents the God
three-headed and two divinities. The large lips have meant unknown,
however, for how much rare, they are present in the representations in
Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and protohistory.
Size: modest dimensions.
Origin: Dennevy, France.
5A9) Vase in painted ceramic. Scene of battle between a man and a man
with two-faced head, which represents Argon, God generally
represented with body strewed of eyes. Generally, this God has one
bearded face, and the others beardless.
5A10) Two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture in marble. It represents
two-faced Janus. This God has been represented in many ways: bearded,
beardless, with a bearded face and a beardless, with two old men, with
two young people, one old face and the other of young person, and with
a remarkable variety of types of styling of hairs and of beard.
Size: approximately to the natural.
5A11) Drawing published in XVII century. It represents a man with
two-faced head; the wings, a rooster on the head. With one
hand he is holding an object not defined, while with the other hand he holds up
It represents Wejopatis, prussian God of the wind.
From more than a century the America had been conquered. The press was
spreaded in Europe, but the Christianity had not still conquered all
Europe, as in some zones like Prussia the
two-faced Gods till existed. This is an ulterior testimony of how much the religions
have roots in the people.
According to the typology of the sculptures of the Paleolithic, this
God, having wings, can itself be considered hybrid man-animal.
Origin: Prussia, Germany.
5A12) Two-faced Angel holding a book with Christian subjects.
(Drawing). The sun, the symbolic moon, and other images are
represented. The angel has features of woman, and therefore he is
beardless, while the head bound together on the nape is bearded. One of
the wings towards the sun is of bird, while the wing behind the moon is of
It has been possible to represent all this religious symbology, for the
technical medium that the drawing on paper allows; what was impossible
in lithic sculpture all round, but this complex world of symbols,
always has been present in the religion, with the word, like
5A13) Anthropomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture . It represents a man
sitting with two head joined for the nape, and look in opposite
direction. It represents two-faced January; it is associated to others
11 statues, and everyone represents a month of the year.
Age: XIII century, a.D.
5A14) Anthropomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents a man
sitting with two head, and look in ahead. It represents " two-faced
January that warms himself at the fire ": in fact, little fires are
represented at its feet.
This sculpture is placed outside the Cathedral of Parma, and
being supported by the wall, probably has the two head in parallel, to
the contrary of other January (Janus) two-faced (Fig. 5A13) that is inside the Cathedral, and that has the two head joined for the nape with look in opposite direction.
The presence in a Christian Cathedral of two sculptures of two-faced
Janus (one within and the other outside), demonstrates that this
divinity, even if was not in the cult of the Christians, was still in
the believes of the people. Otherwise, no allow by the priests to collocate
Collocation: Cathedral of Parma, Parma, Italy.
Age: XIII century a.D.
5A15) Anthropomorphic two-faced wooden sculpture. It represents half
human head of living, and half human head of defunct, that seems nearly
a skull. We do not know the meant of the opened wide mouth.
Size: height cm. 30 approximately.
Origin: Central Africa.
Museum Royal of Central Afrique, Tervuren, Belgium.
5A16) Two-faced anthropomorphic wooden sculptures. It is one of the
many versions of the bifrontism (two-faced), where, rather than to be a
body and two heads, there are two heads joined for the nape, and two
bodies joined for the back. These two sculptures probably come from
localities far one from the other, as they represent two different
varieties of Homo sapiens sapiens; one of low stature and one of high
stature. Also the styles are different. Men of low stature are
represented with a realistic style, nearly caricaturale, while men
of high stature are realized in an elegant style, that aims to lengthen
the head, and to reduce some particulars of the face, and to abolish
eyes. Moreover, they have the body decorated with recordings. The
religion is in common to the two sculptures.
In photography, there is also a sculpture in wood, that represents a phallus, cult object.
Size: approximately mt. 1.30 with the stool.
Origin: Central Africa.
Museum Royal of the Central Afrique, Tervuren, Belgium.
Fig. 5A17) Anthropomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture. It represents Triloknath, divinity currently in the cult.
Collocation: Triloknath Temple, Sends.
Age: XVI century a.D.
5A18) Anthropomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents God
Agni with two heads, that symbolizes "domestic and sacrificale
Age: II century B.C.
Museum Guinet, Paris.
Fig. 5A19) Anthropomorphic wooden two-faced sculpture. It is a mask for dance, for cult rituals.
Origin: Ekoi, Region of the Cross River, Nigeria.
5A20) Anthropomorphic two-faced sculpture in limestone. It represents a
man with two heads, that represents an "ancestor ". This is a local
aspect of transformation of the religion from a cult to an other,
maintaining equal the typology of the representation, that is the
anthropomorphic idol with two heads
However, it is not excluded, that also in the Paleolithic, there was a
cult of the ancestors, connected to similar representations.
Origin: New Ireland.
Museum fur Volkerkunde, Hamburgh, Germany.
5A21) Two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture (particular). Human figure
with three heads, and six arms. It represents Ashura, one of the eight
guardians of Buddha, and smaller divinity.
Origin: Japan. Nara period, 734 a.D.
Fig. 5A22) Anthropomorphic two-faced sculpture in bronze ( Drawing).
It represents a man with a head with four faces.
It is a male divinity.
Size: height cm. 17.3.
Age:1800 - 1700 B.C.
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago (USA)
5A23) Ceramic two-facedvanthropomorphic sculpture . It represents a
naked woman with two heads. It represents a divinity connected to the
cult of the fecundity. This sculpture is presented again (Fig. 8A9)in section
regarding " venus " and goddesses mothers.
This type of sculpture has been found in remarkable amount,
constituted from several types of heads, beyond this type:
one head with two faces; two heads assembled in an only head with look
ahead, and various types of hairdos or hats, some of which
published in this site.
Size: height from cm. 6 to cm. 13, on average cm. 10.
Origin: Tlatilco, Mexico.
Dating: 1100 - 500 B.C.
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