Museum of the Origins of Man



ZOOMORPHIC TWO-FACED HEADS IN PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURE



Manufacture of zoomorphic two-faced head is subdivided in 4 phases:
- from 750,000 to 400,000 years (Acheulean and ancient Clactonian),
- from 400,000 to 200,000 years (Acheulean and middle Clactonian),
- from 200,000 to 40,000 years (Acheulean and recent Clactonian, and Mousterian),
- from 40,000 to 12,000 years (upper Paleolithic),
The typology of the sculptures is constituted from the representation of two heads of mammals joined for the nape, with look in opposite direction (Fig. 11,1).
These types are rare in the Paleolithic, but also in the historical ages and ethnography, however, often, it is no easy to find them photographed in the books, since in the illustrations are generally privileged more pleasant subjects.

clikka per ingrandire l'immagine


Fig. 11,1) Zoomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of mammals joined for the nape with look in opposite direction. Napes begin pointed. Sculpture is in silex, and under the two jaws there is a formation pointed. So,, holding the sculpture for the two central extremities (up and down), we can rotate it, and increases the expression.
Size: height cm. 6, thickness cm. 0.6.
Origin: Senigallia, Ancona, Italy.
Material culture: Clactonian or middle or recent Acheulean.
Collection Museum of the Origins of Man.



Fig. 11.2) Zooanthropomorphic two-faced sculpture on bone. It represents a head of horse, a head of just born horse (according to the size), and a skull. Sculpture can be synthetized as birth, life and death. Sure this sculpture represents one of the very numerous religious philosophies of the Paleolithic.
This sculpture excellently manufactured for several reasons: 1) The technology is better than in the previous periods. 2) Artist was experimented. 3) Cultural and spiritual context of the culture that has produced this sculpture was of good level. 4) The used material allows realization, which was not possible to realize in sculptures in stone, using lithic tools of the Paleolithic.
Size: small.
Origin: France.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.


Fig. 11.3) Zoomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture. It represents a head of horse and another of bison joined for the nape with look in opposite direction. (This sculpture has been found joined to a remarkable number of small sculptures that are mostly heads of animals, men, and of artistic hybrids man-animal). These associations of sculptures are most important.
Size: 6.2 x 4.9 x 0.9 cm.
Origin: Bédeilhac, France.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Museum of Mentone, France.


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