Museum of the Origins of Man

WOMEN IN POST-PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURE




Fig. 8A1) Anthropomorphic sculpture in terracotta. It represents a naked woman, sitting on her knees; it is lacking of arms, and the head lacks because broken off, and not found. Typologically derives from paleolithic Venus. In common, nakedness, and absence of arms. These venus have different names: little idol, Goddess Mother, Goddess of fertility, and so on. This sculpture is similar in all to the Egyptian Goddess Mother (Fig. 8A3).
Size: height cm. 7.
Origin: Cave of the Arene Candide, Finale Marina, Savona, Italy.
Material Culture: Neolithic.
Archaeological museum of Genoa Pegli , Italy


Fig. 8A2) Anthropomorphic sculpture in terracotta. It represents a naked woman; it is a Venus, still lacking of arms and feet like paleolithic venus; it is realized in an elegant style .
Size: small.
Origin: Strelice, Moravia, Czechoslovakia.
Material Culture: Neolithic.


Fig. 8A3) Anthropomorphic sculpture in terracotta. It represents a naked woman, sitting on her knees and without arms. It is similar to the sculpture of Arene Candide (Fig.8A1). In Egypt it is defined Goddess Mother. It has been painted on the body with figures that seem tattoos: fish on the chest and mammals on the back.
Size: small.
Origin: Egypt.
Material Culture: Naqada I°, approximately 3500 years B.C.


Fig. 8A4) Anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents the " Mediterranean Mother ". It is a naked Venus, with strong stylistic deformation of geometric type. The feminine attributes are only the breasts. In common with the previous venus, the absence of arms and feet.
Size: small.
Origin: Sardinia.
Material Culture: protosardinian.
National Archaeological Museum, Cagliari, Italy.


Fig. 8A5) Zooanthropomorphic sculpture in alabaster. It is the " Goddess of the fertility "; sitting over a throne without backrest and flanked from two sphynx (that have an ulterior meant in the cult). From the pierced breasts, liquids in the little basin flowed.She supports the basin with her hands.
This divinity is directly connected to Neolithic goddesses Mothers, and, therefore, to the paleolithic venus.
Size: height cm. 17.8 - width cm. 10.6 - thickness cm. 12.7.
Origin: Grave 20, Necropolis Tutugi, Jail, Granada, Spain.
National Archaeological Museum, Madrid, Spain.


Fig. 8A6) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a naked woman without hands, feet, with beautiful hairdo, like the paleolithic venus, from which derives, and from which she is distinguished for having spread legs.
These sculptures, that represent divinities, have been found in great number, and also two-faced. (Fig. 8A7, 8A8, 8A9)
Size: from cm. 6 to cm. 13, in average cm. 10.
Origin: Tlatilco, Mexico.
Dating: from 1100 to 500 years B.C.
National Museum of Anthropology of City of Mexico.


Fig. 8A10) Anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. (Drawing).
It represents a woman. The stylistic deformation is of geometric type. It is a idol that can be equiparated to paleolithic venus and to more recent goddesses Mothers. The only feminine attribute that they have are the breasts. It does not regard at all the style of the art, but a religious philosophy. The Goddess of the snakes of Cnosso is completely dressed and has the breasts in exhibition.
These feminine sculptures have been found in Lunigiana, united to similar sculptures (same style) representing men armed of "dagger axe" (see Fig. 4A7 and figure caption).
Size: mt. 1 approximately.
Origin: Moncigoli, Massa Carrara , Italy.
Material Culture: age of the metals, third millennium.
Archaeological museum of the Castle of Pontremoli, Italy.


Fig. 8A11) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. The Goddess of the snakes is a feminine divinities that derives from paleolithic venus and from the Goddesses Mothers, of which is also coeval. It is a varying of the Goddess Mother in new religions constituted with the richness of new civilizations. In common with the venus and the goddesses Mothers, it has the uncovered breast, and always much beautiful hats. About the snakes that she holds between the hands we are making typological searches.
Size: small.
Origin: Cnosso, Island of Creta, Greece.
Dating: 1600 years B.C.


Fig. 8A12) Anthropomorphic sculpture in bronze. woman sitting with a young person between her arms. It is a goddess Mother, in Sardinia (Italy) callned "nuragica Madonna".
Size: cm. 10,
Origin: Urzulei, Sardinia, Italy.
Dating: approximately 1000 years B.C.


Fig. 8A13) Anthropomorphic sculpture in limestone. Goddess Mother sitting on throne, wrapped in a cape, and nursing two children. This is an other interesting and rare varying of goddess Mother. (I remember Romolo and Remo, the founders of Rome, that were nursed from a she-wolf, and of which exists an immense production of sculptures ).
Size: cm. 78.
Origin: Necropolis of Megara Iblea.
Dating: first half VI century B.C.
National Museum of Siracusa, Italy.


Fig. 8A15) Group of findings of sculptures in ceramics, part broken off, of the Middle Jomon period, that in Japan has been dated between 5000 and 4000 years ago.
From these fragments and from the sculptures (Fig. 8A16, 8A17, 8A19) we can point out four various types of sculptures, the following:
- Human head with or without neck
- Head of animal with or without neck
- Head of artistic hybrid man-animal
- Naked women (venus).
Absent, instead, two-faced anthropomorphic sculptures.


Fig. 8A16) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a human head,we do not know if man or woman. Style is extremely simple, and expression has been given (for us consciously) making the eyes light different the one from the other, moving the mouth a little on the right, and holding the mouth to great distance from the nose. In short. it is a reinvented head.
We do not know if it is a mask, or a small representation of divinity.
Origin: Hata-machi, Nagano, Japan. Middle Jomon, 5000 - 4000 years ago.
National Museum, Tokyo.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 8A17) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a naked Venus with an interesting and beautiful hat. The style is elegant and ironic, with enormous difference of proportions between the breasts and the other attributes of the sex.The most beautiful venus have always a hat.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Middle Jomn, 5000 - 4000 years ago.


Fig. 8A18) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a woman, and this is deduced only from the breasts; it does not have legs; it seems dressed, and with a kind of belt. In the centerof the belt there is a vertical and oval hole, that can be interpreted like a vulva.
The large lips are interesting, in how much, before and after this age, in sculpture, divinities with large lips have been represented also in Europe. The placement of arms can make to think to bird's wings, therefore to an artistic hybrid man-animal. It is a sculpture intersting to study, because it must give more.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan Middle Jomon, 5000 - 4000 years ago.


Fig. 8A19) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a naked woman with a hat or with a hairdo. The style of the representation of the face is different from that of the body, more realistic.(Two different styles in the same sculpture have two different origins.) It is the more ancient Venus with the representation of hands and feet.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Final Jomon, 4000 - 3000 years ago.


Fig. 8A20) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a woman (for the breasts and the vulva), but it has, also, characteristics of artisticman-animal hybrid, as the arms seem wings, and are not hands, while instead legs have fee. To be studied ulteriorly, searching similar sculptures.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Recent Jomon, 4000 - 3000 years ago.


Fig. 8A21) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a woman with two smallest breasts. This sculpture is already present in this site (Fig. 4A8) and with the doubt of its sex, a legitimate doubt, if the typology of art of a people or of a civilization is unknown. In the European books consulted by us we have more times found on this sculpture the generic figure caption "the stylized figure, period Jomon I°", without a specification of sex or type of divinity. From a Japanese publication we have learned that it is considered "to Venus", and therefore is woman and divinity.
The opened arms, as in this sculpture, nearly representing a dance, are present in many venus of Japan.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Recent Jomon, 4000 - 3000 years ago.


Fig. 8A22) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a woman with long dress and opened wide mouth, and look to the sky. It is sure a feminine divinity that derives from venus.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Recent Jomon, 4000 - 3000 years ago.


Fig. 8A23) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a Venus with hat or a very elaborated hairdo. Stylistic language is extremely rich of particulars, and reinvents completely the human figure.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Recent Jomon, 4000 - 3000 years ago.


Fig. 8A24) Anthropomorphic sculpture in ceramics. It represents a woman. The style is a lot elaborated, so than it is difficult to understand if the body has decorations, or is dressed. For the head, can be considered an artistic hybrid man-animal, and in this case the animal part seems to us the magnified eyes of a bug.
In more recent periods this dress could have been a theatre custom; but sure this sculpture, with this dress, had to represent an important divinity.
Size: small.
Origin: Japan.
Artistic-religious thieullenian mixed to post-paleolithic matthesian Civilization, with association of other divinities. Generically Jomon.


Fig. 8A25) Anthropomorphic sculpture in limestone. It represents goddess Mother Astarte nursing her son. The sculpture has been found without head.
Size: perhaps height cm. 40.
Art of the Phoenicians.
Origin: unknown.





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