Museum of the Origins of Man



THE HUMAN TWO-FACED HEAD IN THE PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURE


The production of the two-faced head is subdivided in 4 phases:
- from 750,000 to 400,000 years (Acheulean and ancient Clactonian),
- from 400,000 to 200,000 years (Acheulean and middle Clactonian),
- from 200,000 to 40,000 years (Acheulean and recent Clactonian, and Mousterian),
- from 40,000 to 12,000 years (upper Paleolithic),
The typology of the sculptures is constituted from very numerous two-faced anthropomorphic types of heads. These heads are lacking in neck.
In lower Paleolithic sculptures are small, and are looking in opposite direction (Fig. 5.2).At the end of lower Paleolithic, in the Mousterian, they are more small (Fig. 5.35), and larger (Fig. 5.24), until a weight of approximately 40 kg., and with the direction of the look, that is of the head, in every direction.
Between the 200.000 and 12.000 years, this type of sculpture is realized in a remarkable variety of styles, from the much realistic and proportionate to the real, to some shapes lengthened; moreover, a head can be smaller of the other bounded together.
In the Paleolithic do not exist two-faced anthropomorphic sculptures of heads with body, except some very very small of the upper Paleolithic. I will describe them with the Venus.
In the upper Paleolitic paintings with human two-faced heads do not exist.
The bifrontism (two-faced) is found in sculpture in the historical civilizations and in little primeval civilizations.
In the lower Paleolitic, the two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture often represents in a same sculpture two heads of hominids of different species, and this coincides with skeletal findings of different hominids which have lived at the same time, and that have been found in Africa.

FIG. 2)The most ancient finding. Drawing of an anthropomorphic two-faced pebble. On the back of the pebble, there is a second image, that is similar to the face of an Australopithecus. This pebble with two faces from the scholars is thought accidental, but it has been used by an Australopithecus, like if it were a sculpture, and therefore must be thought the first shape known of PRE-ART, that is the use of the ready-made before the fabrication of anthropomorphic or zoomorphic sculptures for cult rituals. We never have seen the original, but if it is also very little retouched, we could consider it as art.
Found by W.I. EITZMAN in 1925
Size: we do not know to them, perhaps approximately 7 cm. of height.
Origin: Makapansgat (Valley of the Northern Province, South Africa)
Absolute dating: 3.000.000 years (Dart) and 2.5 - 2.9 million years (Bednarik)
Find studied by Raymond Dart, Mary Leakey, Robert G. Bednarik
Material Culture:not defined, butthe use of accidental cutting stones is established.
(Drawing deduced from a drawing by R.G. Bednarik)



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Fig. 5,1) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, with look in opposite direction. The head (left side) is in the line of Homo habilis, while the head (right side) represents a hominid more modern, probably in the line of a pre-Homo erectus or of a Pre-Sapiens. The sculpture is obtained from a nodule of silex, and it can be considered of good workmanship for the age to which it refers.
Size: height cm. 5.
Origin: Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: probable transition between Olduvaian and ancient Clactonian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.2) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, probably two Homo erectus.
Size: height cm. 5.
Origin: Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: probable transition between Olduvaian and ancient Clactonian.
Obtained from a pebble of silex; the sketched out part is greater to the not sketched out part (see dots in the drawing). Under the jaws of the two heads, there is a removal towards the inside of some millimeters in order to evidence the shape of the jaw. The sculpture has tumbling traces but not disfigurant.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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5.3) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, of different species. A head is smaller of the other. Sculpture is obtained from a nodule of silex, of which the original shape has been partially used in the larger head. Size: lenght cm. 7.
Origin: Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: probable transition between Olduvaian and ancient Clactonian.
The larger head is lengthened for stylistic deformation, but it is evident that the species of hominid is more modern. Other four sculptures, with same cultural attribution, have several typological affinities.
Three sculptures can be compared (Fig. 5,1 - 5,4 - 5,6) that have in common with this: 1) one head larger of the other. 2) the lengthened larger head. 3) recess towards the top for the union of the jaws. 4) two species of different hominids. 5) the small heads are oriented all on the left. The fourth sculpture (Fig. 5,5)collected by J. BOUCHER DE PERTHES has the two heads of equal dimensions, and oriented to the contrary of the other four sculptures, but with the same two types of hominids.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.4) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids, joined for the nape, of different species.It is in silex, and completely worked from every side, that is, no one piece of surface of the original pebble has been used, nevertheless the shape is similar to other sculptures that have used parts of the natural shape of the nodule. (see Fig. 5,1 e 5,3). This means that the hominids, when possible, used nodules with shapes that allowed to reduce working.
Size: lenght cm. 8.
Origin: Gela, Caltanisetta, Sicily, Italy.
Material culture: probable transition between Olduvaian and ancient Clactonian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man


Fig. 5.5) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture (drawing original by J. BOUCHER DE PERTHES, inserted in table Fig. 5.8, in which they follow other descriptions).
It represents two heads of hominids of different species joined for the nape.
Material culture: probable ancient Acheulean.


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Fig. 5.6) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, and of different species. In the head (right side) the orbital zone is well represented. The sculpture, that has elegant stylistic deformation, is in green stone (not hard like the silex), and the alluvial tumbling has cancelled the external traces of working, but the original represented shape has been well conserved.
Size: lenght cm. 8.5.
Origin: Tortona, Alessandria, Italy.
Material culture: probable transition between Olduvaian and ancient Clactonian, or ancient Clactonian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.7) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape with look in opposite direction.
Size: lenght cm. 16.5.
Origin: Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: Ancient or perhaps middle Acheulean. Greater descriptions in a study on this sculpture in " Short history of the discoveries of the art of the lower Paleolithic, and hypothesis on the future of the search " by P.Gaietto, 2002, in " Paleolithic Art Magazine ".
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


Fig. 5,8) Drawings of lithic sculptures found and drawing by JACQUES BOUCHER DE PERTHES and published in AntiquitÃÆ’Æ’Æ’ÃÆ’‚©s Celtiques et Antédiluviennes, de l'industrie primitive ou des Arts à leur origin (1847 - 1864).
They are representations of human heads joined for the nape, with look in opposite direction, that is two-faced anthropomorphic sculptures. All are typical . The used material is silex.
The stylistic deformation is of varied type. It testifies that they belong to various periods of lower Paleolithic.
The interpretations by Boucher de Perthes were various, and different from the typology of today.
Size: from 5 to 13 cm. of length.
Technique of working: it is not looked at, however, sculptures n. 16 and 16 A seems have not round margins, while the others three sculptures seem have margins a little rounded from alluvial tumbling.
Origin: "alluvial sands" probably of the Valley of the Somme.
Material culture: Ancient or middle Clactonian. All the sculptures collected by Boucher de Perthes are in great part authentic, and those not authentic, that is false, re-enter in the margins of error, made also by other researchers, with the lithic tools and the fossil human rests, in the first half of the 800.
Boucher de Perthes dies 80 y.o. in 1868. The ferocity of its enemies not stopped: in 1869, in name of official science, his works were sent to macerates.


Fig. 5,9) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture (drawing). Sculpture found by ANTONIN JURITZKY
(Drawing drawn from a photography published by Juritzky in 1953).
The sculpture represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape with look in opposite direction. Obtained from a nodule of silex; the eye is constituted from a natural hole; all the sides mainly worked are in the zone from the nose to the frontal part of the jaws, and to all the socket that joins under the two jaws towards the top. The human types are archaic, that is hominids with absence of forehead and chin; however, from a drawing it is not possible to establish if can be found features of Homo erectus or of archaic Homo sapiens.
Juritzky thought that this sculpture represents two joined heads, but of feracious animals. The statement can be explained with the fact, than half century ago, not were still all the knowledge of today about the skulls of the hominids found in Africa. In his typology of two-faced heads, with hollowness for the conjunction of the jaws towards the top, Juritzky made a geometric distinction, measured in degrees.
Size: probably lenght cm. 20,
Technique of working of the silex: great removals, and little rifiniture.
Origin: probably Center - North of France.
Material culture: Acheulean or middle Clactonian.


Fig. 5.10) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture (drawing and photography). It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape. Sculpture obtained from a nodule of silex, fine worked in great part of the surface.
The white side in photography is the rind of the nodule.In the drawings it is represented through dots. In photography a natural hole is looked at (zone of the mouth), increased by removing the rind.
Size: height cm. 8.
Origin: Gela, Caltanisetta, Sicily, Italy.
Artistic-religious harroyan Civilization.
Material culture: Ancient Clactonian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


Fig. 5,11) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, and of two different species.
Size: lenght cm. 7.5.
Origin: Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: Ancient Clactonian.
Human species similar to those described in the previous photographies.
The stylistic deformation, in this representation, is inclined to the horizontal lengthened. This sculpture is in silex, and worked from every side. This type of sculpture has been found, also, from palethnologists rigorously unaware of this type of art. They however have understood that these were artefacts, therefore some of they have considered them " working refuse "; while other more " illuminated ", understanding that were " intentional artefacts ", as they did not have cutting margins of the working refuses, have considered them " useless tools "! In the studies of the prehistory it happens also that some scholars make illogical interpretations, in how much never have looked at men that construct " useless tools ".
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.12) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape. The stylistic deformation is relatively proporzioned to the reality. The sculpture is well worked from the two sides. In the front view, head on the left has the eye represented with precision, in spite of the hardness of the silex; while in the photography (posterior view) the other head (that appears here on the left) has represented the orbital zone with a great removal, that could represent a defunct, because the eye appears extinguished.
Size: height cm. 5.5.
Origin: Torrent Romandato, Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: Ancient or middle Acheulean. The attribution to Acheulean is based, also, on the principle of the working of the " two-faced tools " (amygdale), chipped from a side, and then turned and chipped from the same side.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.13) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape. The right head is larger, and has look turned up. Behind it is flat.It is in green stone, and for the modest tumbling, the working traces are not looked at, but the general shape is intact.
Size: height cm. 9.
Origin: Vesima, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: Acheulean or ancient or middle Clactonian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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5.14) Lithic anthropomorphic two-faced sculpture .It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape. In spite of the stylistic deformation for horizontal lengthening, the profile of the head on the left has a angle-shot due in part to the nose.The profile of the head on the right is rounded off. This coupling is present in lower Paleolithic, but also in middle Paleolithic (See Fig. 5,21), but in this case the representation is proportioned to the reality. This constant difference between the two different hominids bound together for the nape, is currently studyed, for the interpretation of the mechanisms of evolution.
Size: lenght cm. 22 and thickness from 4 to 5 cm.
Origin: Cavern of the Olive tree, Valle del Vero, Toirano, Savona, Italy.
Material Culture: Acheulean or ancient or middle Clactonian.
The Cavern of the Olive tree has been dug from the Spanish mission in Italy in 1958, in the eneolithic and bronze age levels. Between the discards of these diggings, put outside from the cave,this sculpture has been found .It is in local grey stone, covered around from a coat of white limestone of approximately 2 millimeters, that demonstrates long permanence in the cavern, and that however can establish that the sculpture has been carryied in the cavern for rituals of cult. This would be the first finding of sculpture in cave of the European lower Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.15) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, and of various species. The union of the two heads regards the nape, in how much the jaws are separated, and in parallel in the ending part, how we can see from the photography: " view by under ".
Size: lenght cm. 18.5.
Origin: Venosa, Potenza, Italy.
Material culture: middle Clactonian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.16) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, and of various species. The sculpture is worked from every side. A residual of the rind of the nodule of silex is remaining, clearly discernible in photography, with dots in the drawing. The two heads have lateral and semifrontal representation. The sculpture in the posterior side is flat, but this, is not consequence of " ready- made ", in how much has a fine job of sketching that made it flat.
Size: lenght cm. 8.5.
Origin: Rodi Garganico, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: Clactonian or middle or recent Acheulean.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.17) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, of which a head is represented of side and of forehead for half face and head.At the contrary, the other head has frontal representation. It is completely worked in every external side, and also towards the inside, in spite of being in silex, material very hard.
Size: height cm. 8.5; width cm. 10.5.
Origin: Maribo, Denmark.
Material culture: Clactonian or middle or recent Acheulean.
A study with 7 photographies and drawings entitled: " A two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture of the lower Paleolithic of Denmark " by P.Gaietto, 2001, is published on Paleolithic Art Magazine.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.18) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, representing two Homo erectus for the general structure, comprised the absence of chin and forehead. The sculpture is in silex, and workedwith accuracy ; the mouth is represented through a recording by percussion, which requested remarkable skill. This finding is the only two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture with the neck of lower and middle Paleolithic. It was found in a zone that would be important for future researches.
Size: height cm. 4.5.
Origin: Caramanico, Pescara, Italy.
Material culture: Clactonian or middle or recent Acheulean.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig.5,19




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Fig.5,19,1



Fig.5,19,2



Fig. 5.19) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of hominids joined for the nape, and of different species. (Fig. 5,19,1 back). This sculpture stylistically is proportioned.It is similar to the sculpture of Gela (Fig. 5,4) for the two human types, but also to many other sculptures. In this sculpture the head side B (see drawing 5.19.2) has the chin, while the joined head does not have chin, and has a rounded face. It is the only sculpture that represents this human type with the NOSE of the lower Paleolithic. This makes to think that in other sculptures of this type the nose was omitted, just as the ears were not represented.
The sculpture is obtained from a nodule of silex, where the original rind remained is white. In the drawings it is indicated with dots. It has only most light signs of transport, but not disfigurant.
The other sculpture of Maribo (Fig. 5,17) is much more worked in the particulars, and the style is inclined to the vertical lengthening, however, the head side B is similar to this sculpture (Fig. 5.19.2) side B. Human species (or variety) in these two sculptures of Maribo are three.
Size: lenght cm.11.
Origin: Maribo, Denmark.
Material culture: Clactonian or middle or recent Acheulean.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.20) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents a head of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis or perhaps of a neanderthalensis Pre-sapiens, with stylistic deformation very elegant. A small head is represented on the big head.This is the only known coupling of two-faced overlapped in the lithic sculpture of the lower Paleolithic. The small head is broken off, at least at half, and then it is polished from alluvial tumbling, like all the sculptures. It is possible, however, that the small head is a ritual hat or a hairdo.
Size: height cm. 11, thickness from 5 to 8 millimeters.Red silex .
Origin: Senigallia, Ancona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or Pre-Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5,21) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape, of which one (on the left) represents a Homo sapiens neanderthalensis with eye and mouth.The other, oriented with look upwards, represents a more archaic human type. The head of the Neanderthalian is in all similar to the head of neanderthalian woman of Balzi Rossi (Fig. 5,32).
Size: height cm. 23.
Origin: S.Pietro d' Olba, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.22) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape; the heads become pointed like if they had a pointed hat in common. The two heads have semifrontal representation. The jaws are not joined, but separated like in the sculpture of Venosa (Fig. 5,15). The human types are enough similar, and seem two Pre-sapiens.
Size: height cm. 10.5.
Origin: Frosinone, Italy.
Material culture: Recent Acheulean or Pre-Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.23) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two half heads human joined. This type of union begins in Mousterian and continues in upper Paleolithic, the protohistory. It is present in the world also in the urban civilizations, where the half head in frontal view can be joined to half head of animal, or of hybrid man-animal, or to half skull, that represents the death. (see Fig. 9,9 -9A3 - 9A4 - 5A15).
This sculpture represents two Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. The head (on the right), oriented with look down has a sure meaning.
Mousterian has been theatre of great inventions in sculpture: the couplings in the two-faced sculptures are several and of different type. However the greater side of the couplings is repeated, and there are some types, that correspond to particular periods of Mousterian, and also to different geographic zones.
We want underline that the attribution to Mousterian, generally is based on the representation of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.But some sculptures could be previous, and other posterior, that is of upper Paleolithic.
Size: height cm. 30.
Origin: Voltri, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.24) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape in semifrontal position. The style of the entirety is realistic, but with light deformation for lengthening in the head (on the left), that represents Homo sapiens of archaic type. The head (on the right) represents a Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. In the head of the Sapiens sapiens eye,nose, chin, and jaw excavated under are well represented.
Size: lenght cm. 43.
Origin: Campoligure, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.25 Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape, and the heads become pointed, like if they had a hat pointed in common. It has affinity with the sculpture of Frosinone (Fig. 5,22) for the two pointed heads together.
Head on the left represents a Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, with eye constituted from a triangular hole. The head on the right represents Homo sapiens sapiens, it has forehead, nose and chin, and eye that is constituted from a circular recording.
Size: height cm. 5.
Origin: San Severo, Foggia, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.26) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape with look in opposite direction.
The sculpture is in green stone; it has had alluvial tumbling, but it is not excessively damaged. The working technique is of two types: sculpture and recording. The head (on the left) has eye, nose and large lips. The large lips are present also in a mesolithic divinity, and a celtic (Fig. 5A8 - 6A1). The head (on the right) has represented the eye through a recording.
Size: height cm. 5.
Origin: Monte Gazzo, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.27) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. This sculpture has two techniques of working: the carved moulding and the recording, that is used in order to make the eyes, that are constituted from two deep cross recordings. It is damaged from alluvial tumbling, but probably has lost little. It has two styles (probably an encounter between two different artistic civilizations); in fact, there is the style of the general processing of the two heads, that imitate the reality, and a geometric or schematic style, for the representation of the eyes, that are inventions of the same eyes. In our opinion, this match is of bad taste, but yesterday, like today, it is the " fashion", that dictates to the artist how he must make.
An affinity with this sculpture, for the couplings of the two styles and the two techniques of working, is in zooanthropomorphic sculpture (Fig. 9,8) found in the cave of the Children (Balzi Rossi).
Size: height cm. 27.
Origin: Andora, Savona, Italy (mountain locality on the sea, short distance from the Balzi Rossi).
Artistic-religious harroyan Civilization.
Material culture: Mousterian.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.28) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape with strong stylistic deformation. Damaged a lot from alluvial tumbling, however it remains an important document. We have already seen this type of coupling in the ancient and middle Clactonian. We have to clear the constant of the two human types of different species, and the style horizontal lengthened for one head, and the style lengthened vertical for the other head.
Size: lenght cm. 14.5.
Origin: Fidenza, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian (previous or posterior). In the Mousterian, it is probable that some cultures, in some zones, were more progressed that in others. These differences are found in all the post-paleolithic ages, and exist still today. It follows, than in sculptures like this and others, found in surface, the cultural attribution, that is the relative dating, is difficult to establish.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5,30) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. Behind it is flat. The head on the left represents Homo sapiens neanderthalensis; the head on the right is interpreted like Homo sapiens sapiens of feminine sex for the hair (and also for the human type) similar to the feminine head of Dolni Vestonice (Fig. 4,26). It has been collected in the cave of the Basura ( approximately 350 mt.from the income), in a place where a ritual or a game has been made, in which littles ball of clay have been launched on a wall. In the same cave other four small sculptures have been collected, of which three two-faced anthropomorphic, and one that represents a mammal head. It cannot be assessed that the mammal head is of the same time of the two-faced anthropomorphic sculptures.
The sculpture is obtained from fragments of stalagmite .
Size: height cm. 5,
Origin: cave of the Basura, Toirano, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5,31) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. Behind it is flat. The head on the left is semifrontal, and represents a Homo sapiens Neanderthalensis. It has escaping forehead, nose and absence of chin. The eye is obtained for rotation, and also the mouth, that has a deeper hole. The bound together head has inclination and look turned up, like the sculpture of Voltri (Fig. 5,23). Size: height cm. 5.
Origin: cave of the Basura, Toirano, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic. This cave at the moment of the discovery, approximately 45 years ago, has had great resonance in the media, for the discovery of prints of feet and hands (in the hardened clay) of the Man of Neanderthal. Recently, new studies have prevailed for the attribution of the prints to Homo sapiens sapiens. However, the presence of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis is verified from the small sculptures, like this, that represent him.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5,32) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. On the left the head of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, probably woman, in how much has hair as the "nubian"; on the right the head of Homo sapiens sapiens, with forehead and chin.
Size: height cm. 4
Origin: Balzi Rossi, Imperia, Italy. (Balzi Rossi: complex of caves on Mediterranean Sea, Italy, at the border with the France).
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic (probably Aurignacian).


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Fig. 5.33) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. On the left the head of an " acromegalic " Homo sapiens sapiens; on the right the head of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
(Photography from Rogacev). The opinion of the discoverer is different from our opinion, in how much he thinks that the sculpture is a " stylized animal ".
Size: " base cm. 2 ".
Origin: Kostjenki, ex-U.R.S.S.
Material culture: for the discoverer, Gravettian, for us, final Mousterian.


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Fig. 5.34) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape, of which one great and one small. The large head represents a Homo sapiens sapiens with forehead, nose, chin, and has look turned down. It is made with limestone cliff of the cave.It has many small erosions, but the image is clear. In these erosions with small holes, covered with mud, there are traces of the coal of the torchs, that man used in order to visit the cave.
Size: height cm. 7.
Origin: cave of the Basura, Toirano, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.35) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents a head with two faces; one of a young person frontal view).The other, of an old or a died person (posterior view). It is the only finding of the Paleolithic with conception of two half faces of different type bound together in lateral view. The human type is Homo sapiens sapiens, for the forehead and the chin.
Size:height cm. 4.
Origin: cave of the Basura, Toirano, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.36) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. One small and the other large. The small head is joined on the nape of the large head, like if it were a hat, and it has look up. The man seems an archaic Sapiens, in spite of the stylistic deformation. Of the same type of this, the sculpture of Carnac (menhir) (Fig.5,37), a proof of the orientation of the heads.
Size: lenght cm. 13.
Origin: Palo, S.Pietro d' Olba, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: Mousterian or upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.38) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads united for the nape, one great and one small. This sculpture is the only one (currently known) of the Paleolithic in which the two heads are represented frontally, that is every one has two eyes. At the same time the large head has also lateral representation, and working under the jaw. The human type of the large head is Homo sapiens sapiens. The sculpture is in red travertino, and beyond to being carved, is modeled trough scraping, and the eyes and the mouth are made through scraping for rotation.
Size: lenght cm. 9.
Origin: Borgio Verezzi, Savona, Italy. (mountain zone on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea).
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.39) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads human joined for the nape. The right head represents a Homo sapiens sapiens of acromegalic type; the head on the left is not clear, but it could be of Neanderthalian type. The sculpture is in red silex, and behind it is flat.
The orientament of the heads is arbitrary, in how much the representation can be oriented in many ways.
Size: height cm. 5.6.
Origin: Senigallia, Ancona, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5,40



clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5,40,1



clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5,40,2


Fig. 5.40) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two heads of Homo sapiens sapiens joined for the nape
- Fig. 5.40 on the left head of acromegalic type, probably a male; on the right feminine head, or perhaps of a young person.This head is well modeled, with cheek in relief, but behind is flat
-. 5,40,1 back of the sculpture. On the left the feminine or of the young person head is not represented, but we can see only the profile with chin. The head on the right is complete in the face: nose, eye, mouth and chin. This head is not frontal, but the representation is from the two sides (is the only one known of the Paleolithic), and preludes to the representation of the head all round of the post-paleolithic ages.
Size: height cm. 18.
Origin: S.Pietro d' Olba, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5,41) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape, one small and the other large. The stylistic deformation is in vertical lengthening. The large head seems a Homo sapiens sapiens with beard. Behind the jaw of the small head a disc of the diameter of cm. 4, and of the thickness of cm. 1 is carved in relief.
Size: lenght cm. 42.
Origin: Rossiglione, Genoa, Italy.
Artistic-religious harroyan Civilization.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.42) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape (B and C), and between the two heads, up, there is a small human figure (A), composed from a head and a body without limbs.
About the use of this sculpture in the ritual there are two hypothesis: it could be placed in horizontal way on the ground, in how much behind it is flat, or sticked with the extremity (D) in the ground, with vertical position. In such case the head on the left has look down, while the head on the right has look up. This is the only two-faced sculpture anthropomorphic that we know with applied a human figure. A similar type of human figure (head and body) is found joined to a head of mammal in the sculpture of Palo (Fig. 9,10 ).
Size: height cm. 45.
Origin: Rossiglione, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.43) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape, that can be interpreted like two variety of Homo sapiens sapiens, and where the head on the left seems an acromegalic type.
Size: height cm. 6.
Origin: Tiglieto, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.44) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape, in an extremely elegant style. The large head is clearly a Homo sapiens sapiens.
Size: lenght cm. 22.
Origin: Pian Castagnè, Lessini Mounts, Verona, Italy.
Culture material: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.45) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. It represents two human heads joined for the nape. In the head, side A, is recorded an eye; in the head, side B, is recorded a mouth. In spite of the stylistic deformation, they seem two Homo sapiens sapiens.
Size: height cm. 12.
Origin: Rossiglione, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.46) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. Three heads, one great and one small ,are represented, joined for the nape with look in opposite direction.There is one smallest head on the forehead of the large head. The sculpture behind is flat.
The bifrontism comprises sculptures also with three and four heads, or faces, in an only head.
Size: height cm. 14.
Origin: Palo, S.Pietro d' Olba, Savona, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


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Fig. 5.47) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. Three heads united for the nape with look in three different directions are represented. Behind it is flat.
He has a far affinity with a two-faced zoomorphic sculpture on bone, that represents three horses with look in three different directions (Fig. 11,2)and of three various " ages ": colt, horse and skull of horse.
Size: height cm. 13.
Origin: Tiglieto, Genoa, Italy.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


clikka per ingrandire l'immagine

Fig. 5.48) Two-faced anthropomorphic lithic sculpture. Four heads are reprsented: two large joined for the nape, and two small on their foreheads. The sculpture is damaged from alluvial tumbling, however, the large head (on the right) can be attributed to Homo sapiens sapiens. Behind it is flat.
Size: height cm. 18, thickness cm. 3.
Origin: Saint Feliù, Brava Coast, Spain.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic.
Collection Museum of the Origins of the Man.


Fig. 5.49) Two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture in ivory. It represents two men united for the nape in " acrobatic " way! The low figure seems a female; the high figure seems a male.It is the first finding of this type, and a hypothesis evolutionistic cannot be made, as there are not finds in post-paleolithic ages.We could only to associate them to canadian sculptures from trunk of tree, with heads overlapping.
Size: height cm. 14.8 ( cm.5.2 low figure; high figure cm. 9.6).
Origin: Gagarino, Russia.
Material culture: upper Paleolithic (from L.M. Tarassov)



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